Technological aspects of unmanned cars and high-degree automation cars

9 октября, 2021 от arto Выкл

The idea of unmanned vehicles or autonomous vehicles is not new for the transport industry. In the global automotive industry, structural changes are occur: the introduction of new technologies, the development of autonomous and connected cars, the transition of many companies to the production strategy of electric vehicles, as well as the creation of new forms of mobility — Crashing and Raj Shering.

Currently, the vehicle management automation systems are used in railway transport, aviation, urban metro, logistics, agricultural industry, in the sectors of the heavy industry. Now many road vehicles are considered semi-autonomous, having such embedded functions as parking assistance system and automated braking systems. The technology of autonomous vehicles is based on GPS capabilities, as well as on advanced sensory systems that can detect boundaries of travelers, signs and signals, as well as unexpected obstacles. Although the work of currently existing technological solutions in the field of autonomous driving is not ideal, it is expected that with its improvement, autonomous vehicles will be implemented more and more actively: according to the forecast of some experts, up to half of cars coming from conveyors worldwide, will be autonomous .

Analyzing the current state of the market and the development plans for the development of autonomous transport, it is worth noting the fact that most large automakers intend to release their models in the segment of unmanned cars. Today there are cars with different levels of autonomy. Almost all of them are in the stages of research and testing on public roads. This became possible thanks to the constant successful introduction of innovation companies in the vehicles created by them. For more than one decade, there are a variety of assistance systems for the driver (ADAS), built into the serial release of cars.

More than 250 companies involved in autonomous vehicles, including automakers, technology suppliers, service providers, and technological startups are taking serious steps to create self-managed cars or cars without a driver.

The effective functioning of vehicles with varying degrees of traffic automation is possible due to the work of special computer software, as well as various systems and sensors. The operation of autonomous car systems is based on sensors, complex algorithms, machine learning systems and powerful processors controlled by specialized software. Radar sensors monitor the position of the nearest vehicles. Video cameras are detected by traffic lights, read road signs, track other vehicles and are looking for pedestrians. LIDAR sensors (light detection and distance measurement) use pulse laser light to measure distances, detecting the edges of the road and determining the layout of the strips. Ultrasonic sensors in wheels detect borders and other vehicles during parking.

Complex software then processes all these sensory data, paves the path and sends signals to the actuator mechanisms of the vehicle, which control acceleration, braking and steering.

Hardly programmed rules, obstacle tract algorithms, forecast modeling and object recognition help the software to follow the rules of the road and overcome obstacles.

From the level of autonomy of the vehicle directly depends on the total number of sensors, installed systems, computing power, providing data processing with a computer. According to modern estimates, given the tests carried out in the United States, it can be concluded that the fully autonomous car (the 4th and 5th level of autonomy) generates the amount of data in the amount of from 11 to 152 TB per day.

The continuous evolution of automotive technologies is aimed at ensuring even greater advantages in the field of safety and on the creation of autonomous driving systems (ADS), which can ensure fully safe and comfortable driving and minimize the risk of collisions on the road.

In accordance with the generally accepted classification, 5 levels of car autonomy are distinguished. These levels were developed by the Company of automotive engineers (SAE) and differ depending on the degree of person’s participation in the driving process. In fact, in their classification, six levels, however, the zero level implies the absence of automation, that is, complete control of a person over the vehicle.

SAE 0. Zero level / lack of autonomy.

SAE 1. First Level / Driver Help.

SAE 2. Second level / incomplete autonomy.

SAE 3. Third Level / Conditional Autonomy.

SAE 4. Fourth level / high autonomy.

SAE 5. Fifth level / Full autonomy.

Each large technological or automotive company, deciding to carry out activities in this direction, or focuses on its own development in the field of autonomous vehicles, or develops cooperation with market participants and positions itself in this segment.

According to analysts, despite a number of open technical and legal issues, mass production of car levels SAE 3 and SAE 4 is expected over the next 5 years. Serial production of automobiles 5 levels of autonomy (SAE 5) is expected significantly later.

Almost all major world automotive holdings are actively establishing the production of cars of the 3rd level of autonomy. For example, the latest Audi A8 is equipped with a Traffic Jam Pilot system (TJP). TJP uses a set of sensors (Ladar / Radar / Camera) to monitor the environment, allowing the driver to take a foot with pedals and accelerate to a speed of 37.3 miles per hour (60 km / h). The rest of the sensors control the driver’s vigilance, offering him to take control when the conditions require this.

Pilot projects on the launch of cars 4 levels of autonomy are actively implemented by Google’s subsidiaries, GM — Waymo and Cruise, and others. The French company Navy has already produces and sells shuttle and 4-level taxis in the USA, which fully work on electricity and can develop maximum speed to 55 miles per hour. In 2020, Alphabet Waymo introduced the service of an unmanned taxis of the 4th level of autonomy in Arizona, where they tested the Safety unmanned cars without a driver for the seat for more than a year and drove more than 10 million miles. The Canadian car supplier Magna has developed technology (MAX4) to provide level 4 capabilities in both the urban environment and highway. They work with LYFT over the supply of high-tech sets that turn cars into unmanned. Volvo and Baidu. They also announced a strategic partnership for joint development of 4th-level electric vehicles, which will serve the robotxy market in China.

Companies such as Waymo, Tesla, Apple and others tested cars with SAE 5 level on public roads in many US states, where such activities are permitted legally. However, as experts in the field of AVS are noted, it will be necessary for more than 10 years to form the necessary regulatory and technological environment. From the point of view of technology, we are talking about the large-scale implementation of V2X communication technologies, which requires the deployment of a new communication generation of 5G.

V2X is decrypted as a «car connected-co-all» and uses radio technologies to ensure active safety. The car will be able to interact with everything that is around it. Cars connected to Wi-Fi or cellular communication, for example, due to angle can get a sufficient amount of information about the location of each other and change the route in advance to avoid collisions. In this advantage of this technology in front of cameras and radar, which can monitor the situation only in the immediate vicinity of the machine.

This technology will allow drivers and self-governing cars not only to avoid collisions, but also to send and receive all types of data to help balance urban traffic and save fuel.

Thanks to the V2X technology, the connected cars will soon be able to inform the driver that is located ahead — outside its field of view. Since 2017, the technology of self-managed cars is developing so quickly that it is difficult to predict the technical characteristics of the machines that will go from the conveyor by the end of the next decade.

Another advantage of V2X in front of other sensors is its range. Cell and Wi-Fi-transmitters have a much larger range, which allows them to send and receive data much faster before. The range of other sensors is approximately 15 meters (~ 50 feet) to 75 meters (~ 250 feet).

It is expected that wireless communication will play a much more important role than in 2017. First of all, passengers in the cabin will receive new services based on Internet access and location, regardless of the type of car — traditional or autonomous.